Active Directory Sites and Replication (2023)

Even in the smallest of domains Microsoft recommends that there is more than one Domain Controller. This provides fault tolerance and can enhance performance for clients. Every Domain Controller contains a read/write copy of the Active Directory Database. Each Domain Controller must store the same database. In order for the Active Directory database to remain constant, Replication must take place.

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A system administrator can make a change to any domain controller in the domain and the change will eventually be propagated to the other domain controllers. This type of replication is known as multi-master. There are no primary or secondary domain controllers for the domain, i.e. all domain controllers have equal control over the Active Directory Database.


Windows NT 4.0 used a different method for replication. NT 4.0 Domains contained Primary Domain Controllers (PDCs) and Backup Domain Controllers (BDCs). Under NT4, Changes to the domain could only be made on the PDC. The BDC stored a backup copy of the PDC. Windows 2003/2008 Domain Controllers make no such distinction. All Domain Controllers have equal control.

Under Windows Server 2008, changes can be made to any domain controller, and these changes will be replicated to all the others accordingly. However, under NT 4.0, changes can only be made to the Primary Domain Controller! Within Windows Server 2008 there are two levels of replication : Domain Wide and Forest Wide. With Domain Wide replication all data about the domain is replicated to all other domain controllers within the domain. Forest Wide Replication is carried out by the global catalog servers and they are responsible for the replication of:

  • The Schema for the forest
  • Forest configuration information
  • A stripped down version of all objects within the forest

As global catalog servers are also Domain Controllers they also replicate domain data.

Elements of Active Directory Replication

As previously shown, in a Windows Server 2008 network, changes can occur on any Domain Controller. Two types of changes can occur: an originating update and a replicated update. An originating update is the first time a change is made to a property in Active Directory. e.g. You have two Domain Controllers, and you log on and change a user’s password. At this point, no other Domain Controller is aware of the change. This is known as the originating update. A replicated update on the other hand is a change made to the Active Directory that did not originate at that copy of the database. i.e. Because the change occurred at another Domain Controller, the change is considered to be a replicated update.

(Video) Configuring Active Directory Replication and Site Link in Windows Server 2019

Every change to the directory is given a USN (Update Sequence Number). The USN is incremented every time a change is made on the domain controller. The DC keeps a record of its own USNs and the USNs of its replication partners. This table is known as a High-Watermark Table. Every 5 minutes (default) the DC asks its partners for any changes since the last USN which it has records of, for each DC. The partners then respond with their changes and the first DC updates its USN accordingly.

Both Domain Controllers currently store the same Active Directory Database. Now imagine a new user account is created on Server1:

Server1 now has a USN of 2 showing that it now has a more up-to-date copy of the database. Later on a change is made to the database from Server2. The end result is that all domain controllers will contain up-to-date information.

Server1 will notify Server2 that it has changes and replication will take place. Server2 will then have an updated database.

Replication Partners

Every Domain Controller can accept changes and it can also replicate these changes around the network. However, In Windows Server 2008, every Domain Controller doesn’t talk directly to every other Domain Controller, instead each Domain Controller has either one or several other replication partners. If a Domain Controller sends data directly to another Domain Controller then the two Domain Controllers are said to be replication partners.

This is ideal in situations where Domain Controllers are spread across remote offices. If every Domain Controller was replicating with every other Domain Controller then the available bandwidth would quickly be depleted.

Luckily, Active Directory creates its own replication topology. The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) service creates replication links between all of the Domain Controllers with the enterprise.

(Video) How to Create Active Directory Sites and Subnets | Windows Server 2019

The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC)

The KCC links Domain Controllers together using a two-way ring topology. This ensures that each Domain Controller has more than one route for replication. The KCC also ensures that the Domain Controllers it connects are never more than three hops away from each other. The KCC will periodically re-evaluate its topology ensuring that dynamic networks can be accommodated. If any changes occur to the network (such as the addition of a Domain Controller), then the KCC will recalculate an optimal path and reconfigure Windows automatically. KCC unlike some other services can quite happily work by itself without any configuration.

Although each Domain Controller has a high watermark table which stores a list of the USN numbers for its replication partners, another table is needed, this is known as the Up-To-Date Vector Table.

The Up-To-Date Vector Table stores a record of every DC on the network including the type of write, i.e. Originating or Replicated. This is used to prevent replication loops and any unnecessary replication.

Property Version Numbers

Every object in the Active Directory also has a Property Version Number (PVN) every time a change is made to the object its PVN number is increased. The PVN value is used to make sure that two replicated changes arriving at a DC have a method of working out precedence. The key here is that a higher version number has precedence over a lower version number.

There is more to the Active Directory replication process than has been shown here. The full process is beyond the scope of this course, but while it’s not required for the exam it certainly rewards further study!

Active Directory Sites and Subnets

In an ideal world everything would be connected with a high-speed network connection and users would be able to access resources regardless of where it was located, unfortunately this just isn’t the case. There are a two things to consider when setting up large networks with multiple sites:

  1. Network Bandwidth: Network Bandwidth refers to the amount of data that can pass through the cable at any given time. For example, a standard modem may only be able to pass 56Kpbs (kilobits per second) of data through a cable whilst a 100Mbps UTP Cable can pass a lot more.
  2. Network Cost: High speed links between remote sites can be very expensive and most companies may have to settle for slower, less reliable connections. This can cause a lot of problems for Active Directory since replication can generate a lot of replication traffic.

With these factors in mind network administrators have to be careful of how they setup Active Directory. (Imagine 1000 users logging on over a 56k Modem!)

(Video) Understanding Active Directory Sites

Active Directory provides a solution to this problem, known as Sites. Sites take a network’s physical infrastructure into account to control replication traffic. The following Active Directory Objects are used to manage replication traffic:

Subnets: A subnet is a division of the network. Subnets are normally connected through routers or bridges. All computers on the same subnet are generally well connected. Computers are assigned to sites based on their location in a subnet or a set of subnets. Subnet information is used to locate the nearest DC for logon and for AD Replication to determine the best routes between domain controllers.

Sites: An Active Directory Site contains Domain Controllers linked by a high-speed, reliable, and cheap connection. Domain Controllers within a site all replicate using the notification process described earlier. Because there is no concern about replication speed or cost within a site, all domain controllers replicate whenever they need to instead of adhering to a fixed schedule.

The schedule used to determine the best time for replication between sites is based upon available bandwidth and cost. A site contains one or more subnets. By default all domain controllers become a member of a site called Default-First-Site-Name. The first domain controller created is always a member of this site (which can be renamed). New domain controllers are automatically added to the site (if any) containing their subnet.

Site Links: In order for replication to take place a site-link must be created. A schedule is applied to the site-link to state when the link is available. A site link can involve more than two sites. A default site-link using the IP protocol is created when Active Directory is first installed. This is called DEFAULTIPSITELINK. Different replication protocols are available for site-links (more later).

Sites are used in Active Directory to reduce replication traffic between remote locations across slow, expensive and unreliable WAN links. In the network shown there are three sites each connected with slow WAN Links. The Domain Controllers within each site have high-speed connections (10Mbps or above). They can quite happily replicate within a site without swamping bandwidth. However, UK Domain Controllers attempting to replicating with French ones over the slow 56k Link drastically reduce WAN bandwidth due to the large amount of replication traffic that AD generates. Sites prevent this by only replicating changes at specified times. Also, each site has a global catalog which users can access instead of using the site-link. A site can contain multiple domains or a domain can be a member of multiple sites. Consider the case when some site links are upgraded to 10Mbps connection. Germany is now a member of two sites. The UK / France link will rarely be used because a) the UK is not in the same site as France b) replication can be configured to use a Site Link Bridge.

Site Link Bridges

Site-link Bridges link two or more site-links into a new link. In the example above, it is quicker for the UK to communicate with France by using 2 site links, UK-GERMANY and GERMANY-FRANCE. A new site-link bridge can be created using these two links. The UK site will now use the site-link bridge to replicate with France rather than the 56k connection. WAN traffic will be redirected through Germany.

(Video) Overview of Active Directory Sites and Services

Bridgehead Servers

Sites further reduce replication traffic by restricting the use of the WAN link to one Bridgehead Server in each site. Bridgehead servers are solely responsible for propagating changes to the directory to bridgehead servers in all other sites. Bridgehead servers at the dispersed sites are then responsible for distributing the changes to Domain Controllers in the remote sites.

Replication Traffic

There are two types of replication in Active Directory:

Intrasite Replication is the synchronisation of the Active Directory database between domain controllers within the same site. Machines inside a site normally have a high-speed connection.

Intersite Replication is the synchronisation of Active Directory between domain controllers in different sites. Intersite Replication is optimised to minimize the amount of traffic between sites.

Intrasite Replication

Intrasite Replication is normally very simple. All Domain Controllers within the site will replicate with each other ensuring a consistent copy of the database. It is always presumed that all domain controllers within a site have a high-speed, reliable connection. Domain Controllers within a site replicate using the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol. The RPC protocol is optimised for transmitting and synchronizing data on a fast and reliable network. Non of the data is compressed.

Intersite Replication

Intersite replication is optimized for low-bandwidth connections which are less reliable, e.g. a 56Kpbs site-link. Intersite Replication can work with two different protocols to provide communication: RPC over Internet Protocol (IP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). RPC over IP is used when a fairly reliable connection is available. RPC over IP based connections require a constant connection between two or more domain controllers in different sites. SMTP is the protocol that is most commonly used for sending e-mails on the internet. SMTP will store the information if the receiving end is unavailable and attempt to resend it at a later period. SMTP is commonly used for dial-up connections that aren’t always available. The replication traffic can be resent at later intervals when the connection is available. N.B. To use SMTP for Intersite Replication a Windows Certificate Authority must be made available for security purposes. Intersite Replication can also be controlled using Active Directory Sites and Services. Replication schedules can be configured to control when replication is allowed to take place. E.G. “don’t replicate between 9am-5pm”. When configuring replication schedules time-zones need to be taken into consideration. It may be off-peak hours in England but it may be 4pm in the USA. A schedule must be created that will accommodate all sites.

Universal Group Membership Caching

When a user logs onto a domain in an Active Directory environment a global catalog server must be available to provide universal group membership information. If one is not available the user will not be able to logon. In Windows 2000 networks it was highly recommended that you placed a global catalog server in each site to prevent universal group membership information traversing slow WAN links. Although global catalog servers speed up response time they can also cause a lot of replication traffic. Windows Server 2003/8 domains introduce a new feature called Universal Group Membership Caching.

(Video) Step by Step Active Directory Sites and Replication

A Windows Server configured to use Universal Group Membership Caching will firstly contact a global catalog server for a user logging on and then store it so that subsequent requests will not need to be handled by a global catalog server.

This can greatly improve response time for logon requests, however a global catalog server must still be available for the server to obtain the user’s information. The server will also update this information every 8 hours. Universal Group Membership Caching does not eliminate the need for Global Catalog servers however they do help speed up logon requests.


How do I fix Active Directory replication issues? ›

If AD DS cannot be removed normally while the server is connected to the network, use one of the following methods to resolve the problem: Force AD DS removal in Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM), clean up server metadata, and then reinstall AD DS. Reinstall the operating system, and rebuild the domain controller.

What is the minimum replication time between AD sites? ›

The default replication interval is 180 minutes, or 3 hours. The minimum interval is 15 minutes. Consider the following criteria to determine how often replication occurs within the schedule window: A small interval decreases latency but increases the amount of wide area network (WAN) traffic.

What are the 4 most important benefits of Active Directory? ›

Advantages and Benefits of Active Directory

Centralized resources and security administration. Single logon for access to global resources. Simplified resource location.

How does KCC work in Active Directory? ›

The KCC is a built-in process that runs on all domain controllers and generates replication topology for the Active Directory forest. The KCC creates separate replication topologies depending on whether replication is occurring within a site (intrasite) or between sites (intersite).

What causes AD replication errors? ›

Two of the more common causes include a loss of network connectivity or a DNS configuration error. Replication errors can also occur as a result of authentication errors or a situation when the domain controller lacks the hardware resources to keep pace with the current demand.

How do I test Active Directory replication? ›

How do I check my AD replication status? Running the repadmin /showrepl can help you view the replication status. If you would like an overall replication health summary, the command repadmin /replsummary should help.

How much replication is enough? ›

It depends on type of the experiment. For greenhouse experiments, 4-6 replications are OK. For field experiments 3-4 would be enough. Sometimes, setting up too many replications may increase the experimental error.

Is replication High Availability? ›

In a high-availability replication system, if the primary server fails, a secondary database is promoted to primary server, and Enterprise Replication can continue with the new primary server.

How long does Sysvol replication take? ›

SYSVOL connection between sites. SYSVOL replication is initiated between two inter-site members at the start of the 15-minute interval, assuming the schedule is open.

What are the 3 main components of an Active Directory? ›

The Active Directory structure is comprised of three main components: domains, trees, and forests. Several objects, like users or devices that use the same AD database, can be grouped into a single domain.

What are the 5 roles of Active Directory? ›

Currently in Windows there are five FSMO roles:
  • Schema master.
  • Domain naming master.
  • RID master.
  • PDC emulator.
  • Infrastructure master.
1 Dec 2021

What are the 4 types of Microsoft Active Directory? ›

Below we'll explain their differences in order to help you decide what you need.
  • Active Directory (AD) ...
  • Azure Active Directory (AAD) ...
  • Hybrid Azure AD (Hybrid AAD) ...
  • Azure Active Directory Domain Services (AAD DS)
25 Aug 2019

How many types of replication are there in Active Directory? ›

In active directory environment, there are mainly two types of replications. As the name confirms, this covers the replication happens with in a site. By default, (according to Microsoft) any domain controller will aware of any directory update within 15 seconds.

Where is the Sysvol folder located? ›

By default, this folder is the C:\Windows\Sysvol\Domain folder. Monitor the consistency of files and folders for all domain controllers in the domain.

How often does the KCC run? ›

The KCC is a built-in process that runs on all DCs and helps in creating replication topology. It runs every 15 minute by default and delegates the replication path between DCs based on the connection available. The KCC automatically creates replication connections between DCs within the site.

How do I force replication between domain controllers? ›

Using a graphical user interface

Open the Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in. Browse to the NTDS Setting object for the domain controller you want to replicate to. In the right pane, right-click on the connection object to the domain controller you want to replicate from and select Replicate Now.

How do I check Active Directory errors? ›

The best way to verify the operation of Active Directory is to run the console utility Dcdiag (Domain Controller Diagnosis). Dcdiag executes several tests to verify that AD is working correctly. If Dcdiag reports a failed test you will need to troubleshoot your domain controller to find the cause.

How can I tell if Active Directory is healthy? ›

How to check the health of your Active Directory
  1. Make sure that domain controllers are in sync and that replication is ongoing. ...
  2. Make sure that all the dependency services are running properly. ...
  3. Use the Domain Controller Diagnostic tool (DCDiag) to check various aspects of a domain controller. ...
  4. Detect unsecure LDAP binds.

Is AD replication push or pull? ›

Creating Replication Topology

Active Directory replication is a one-way pull replication whereby the DC that needs updates (the target DC) gets in touch with the replication partner (the source DC).

How do you know if replication is running? ›

Connect to the Publisher in Management Studio, and then expand the server node. Expand the Replication folder, and then expand the Local Publications folder. Expand the publication for the subscription you want to monitor. Right-click the subscription, and then click View Synchronization Status.

Why is there 3 replications? ›

The Main reason to keep that replication factor as 3 is, that suppose a particular data node is own then the blocks in it won't be accessible, but with replication factor is 3 here, its copies will be stored on different data nodes, suppose the 2nd Data Node also goes down, but still that Data will be Highly Available ...

How many mistakes does replication make? ›

Fixing Mistakes in DNA Replication

That might not seem like much, until you consider how much DNA a cell has. In humans, with our 6 billion base pairs in each diploid cell, that would amount to about 120,000 mistakes every time a cell divides!

How often does replication make a mistake? ›

It is estimated that replicative eukaryotic DNA polymerases make errors approximately once every 104 – 105 nucleotides polymerized [58, 59]. Thus, each time a diploid mammalian cell replicates, at least 100,000 and up to 1,000,000 polymerase errors occur.

Does replication improve accuracy? ›

A replication study can also be viewed as increasing the original sample size. Hence, intuitively, both increasing the number of observations and incorporating a replication study increases the precision and the accuracy of the estimate of the population effect.

Can replication improve performance? ›

Replicated data can also improve and optimize server performance. When businesses run multiple replicas on multiple servers, users can access data faster.

What are the three types of replication? ›

There were three models for how organisms might replicate their DNA: semi-conservative, conservative, and dispersive.

How do I check for Sysvol errors? ›

Follow these steps.
  1. Check for the SYSVOL share. You may manually check whether SYSVOL is shared or you can inspect each domain controller by using the net view command: ...
  2. Check DFS Replication state. ...
  3. Check Event logs for recent errors or warnings. ...
  4. Check the Content Freshness configuration.
24 Sept 2021

How can you tell if Sysvol is replicated? ›

How to verify the SYSVOL replication state (FRS or DFSR)
  1. Logon to TMDC01 as Administrator.
  2. Open an Administrative Command Prompt.
  3. Type Dcdiag /e /test:sysvolcheck /test:advertising >c:\sysvolcheck.
11 Mar 2022

How do I force Sysvol to replicate? ›

Go to control panel, click on services, restart "DFS Replication" it will sync changes on the sysvol to all other DCs. Every second counts.. make use of it.

What are the basic interview questions for Active Directory? ›

Most Asked Active Directory Interview Questions
  • 1) What do you understand by the term Active Directory? ...
  • 2) What is a domain? ...
  • 3) What is the default protocol used in directory services? ...
  • 4) What is the difference between domain local, global and universal groups? ...
  • 5) What is the Sysvol folder?

What are the 3 most common group scopes used in Active Directory? ›

There are three group scopes in active directory: universal, global, and domain local.

What is Active Directory in simple words? ›

Active Directory (AD) is a database and set of services that connect users with the network resources they need to get their work done. The database (or directory) contains critical information about your environment, including what users and computers there are and who's allowed to do what.

What runs Active Directory? ›

Active Directory (AD) is a directory service that runs on Microsoft Windows Server.

What is the main purpose of Active Directory? ›

What Does Active Directory Do? AD serves as a centralized security management solution that houses all network resources. The purpose of Active Directory is to enable organizations to keep their network secure and organized without having to use up excessive IT resources.

Is Active Directory a skill? ›

Description. Active Directory is the heart of Windows Server user management and permissions. It's a key skill for any IT administrator and help desk staff. The Active Directory Administrator is responsible for managing all aspects of the domain including the users, groups, and computer accounts in the domain.

How many users can be in an AD group? ›

The actual limit is 230 or 1,073,741,823 RIDs. Security principals (that is, user, group, and computer accounts) can be members of a maximum of approximately 1,015 groups.

Is Active Directory TCP or UDP? ›

Active Directory
Client PortsServer PortProtocol
23 Mar 2022

What is LDAP in Active Directory? ›

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for working with various directory services. Directory services, such as Active Directory, store user and account information, and security information like passwords.

What are the two types of replications? ›

Replication, replication, replication. At least two key types of replication exist: direct and conceptual.

What port does AD replication use? ›

More Info:
135TCP for RPC, EPM (Replication)
389TCP, UDP for LDAP (Directory, Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts)
445TCP, UDP for SMB, CIFS, SMB2, DFSN, LSARPC, NbtSS, NetLogonR, SamR, SrvSvc (Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts)
4 more rows

What is LDAP replication? ›

LDAP Sync replication is an object-based replication mechanism. When any attribute value in a replicated object is changed on the provider, each consumer fetches and processes the complete changed object, including both the changed and unchanged attribute values during replication.

What port does Sysvol use? ›

TCP Port 139 and UDP 138 network ports are used by the SYSVOL replication service to replicate contents of SYSVOL folder. UDP Port 389 for LDAP network port is used to handle normal authentication queries from client computers.

Where is AD data stored? ›

The AD database is stored in the NTDS. DIT file located in the NTDS folder of the system root, usually C:\Windows. AD uses a concept known as multimaster replication to ensure that the data store is consistent on all DCs. This process is known as replication.

What does Sysvol stand for? ›

The system volume (SYSVOL) is a special directory on each DC. It is made up of several folders with one being shared and referred to as the SYSVOL share. The default location is %SYSTEMROOT%\SYSVOL\sysvol for the shared folder, although you can change that during the DC promotion process or anytime thereafter.

How do you force a KCC to run? ›

Open the Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in. In the left pane, browse to the NTDS Settings object for the server you want to trigger the KCC for. Right-click on NTDS Settings , select All Tasks, and Check Replication Topology. Click OK.

How do you fix an AD replication problem? ›

If AD DS cannot be removed normally while the server is connected to the network, use one of the following methods to resolve the problem: Force AD DS removal in Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM), clean up server metadata, and then reinstall AD DS. Reinstall the operating system, and rebuild the domain controller.

How do I enable replication in Active Directory? ›

Using a graphical user interface
  1. Open the Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in.
  2. Expand the Inter-Site Transport container.
  3. Click on the IP container.
  4. In the right pane, double-click on the site link you want to modify the replication interval for.
  5. Enter the new interval beside Replicate every.
  6. Click OK.

How do I force Active Directory replication immediately? ›

How to Make Active Directory Replicate Instantly
  1. Open “Active Directory Sites and Services“.
  2. Expand “Sites” > “Inter-Site Transports“.
  3. Expand the site, then the domain controller.
  4. Right-click “NTDS Settings“, then select “Replicate Now“

How do I force synchronize Active Directory? ›

To manually run synchronization with the Active Directory domain controller: In the application web interface, select the Settings → External services → LDAP server connection section. Click Synchronize now.

What is AD replication and why is it needed? ›

Active Directory replication is the method of transferring and updating Active Directory objects from one DC to another DC. The connections between DCs are built based on their locations within a forest and site.

Why is Active Directory replication important? ›

Information in the Active Directory (AD) network is modified or updated constantly. In such cases, if any information is updated in one domain controller (DC) of the AD network, all other DCs in the network should also be updated with the new information. This process is done in AD through replication.

How do you check for DC replication problems? ›

Use either of the following methods to view replications errors: Download and run the Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant tool OR Run AD Status Replication Tool on the DCs. Read the replication status in the repadmin /showrepl output. Repadmin is part of Remote Server Administrator Tools (RSAT).

How do I know if DFS replication is working? ›


This command shows you the current replication state of DFS-R in regard to its DFS replication group partners.

How do I know if my domain controller is primary or secondary? ›

To check which server is the PDC start MMC with the Active Directory Users and Computers.
  1. Right click on the domain.
  2. Click Operations Masters.
  3. All three tabs (RID, PDC, Infrastructure) should show the same server as the Operations Master.
27 Apr 2012

How long does it take for a GPO to replicate? ›

When you make a change to a group policy, you may need to wait two hours (90 minutes plus a 30 minute offset) before you see any changes on the client computers. Even then, some changes will not take effect until after a reboot of the computer.

How do I verify DNS replication? ›

Verifying dynamic update
  1. Open a command prompt as an administrator. To open a command prompt as an administrator, click Start. ...
  2. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press ENTER: dcdiag /test:dns /v /s:<DCName> /DnsDynamicUpdate.
8 Oct 2021

How do you sync data between two systems? ›

How to synchronize data between two systems (one-way vs. two-way sync)
  1. Aggregation of data from different sources.
  2. Explanation of one-way sync workflow.
  3. Configuration of Pipedrive node to get data.
  4. Configuration of HubSpot node to get data.
  5. Illustration of the one-way sync process.
  6. Table and JSON view.
18 Nov 2021

How long does Active Directory take to sync? ›

Once every 30 minutes, the Azure AD synchronization is triggered, unless it is still processing the last run. Runs generally take less than 10 minutes, but if we need to replace the tool, it can take 2-3 days to get into synchronicity. On busy days, it is not uncommon for this process to take several hours to complete.


1. Replication in Active Directory
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2. 21. How to Install Additional Domain Controller and Managing Replication in Windows Server 2012 R2
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3. How Active Directory Replication Works ? Types of replication.
4. 56-MCSA 2019 (Active Directory Inter-Site Replication Part 1) By Eng-Abeer Hosni | Arabic
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5. MCITP 70-640: Active Directory Replication
6. Setting up Active Directory Sites, Subnets and Site links
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